The chemical elements are grouped into three major groups: metals, not metals and noble gases.
Hydrogen (H) does not fit into any of these classifications because it has its own characteristics. Some tables show this division.
Metals are chemical elements that have several specific properties, such as gloss, thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability and ductility.
All metals are solid at 25ºC and 1atm pressure except mercury (Hg), which is liquid under these conditions.
Almost all metals are bright as they are able to reflect light very well. Gold, silver and aluminum are examples of very bright metals.
Metals are good electrical conductors. As they are generally ductible, that is, they can be reduced to wires, they are used as such in conducting electricity.
Metals conduct heat well. A pure metal does not always have desirable properties for certain applications.
This is why metal alloys are produced, where two or more metals are mixed. Examples are bronze and brass. Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin, and brass is a mixture of copper and zinc.
Most alloys consist of two or more metals, but some contain nonmetals, such as carbon. The most widely used alloy of this type is steel.
Nonmetals are poor conductors of electricity, they are almost lackluster, they are neither malleable nor ductile. They tend to form anions (negative ions).
Noble or inert or rare gases make up about 1% of air. It is very difficult to get compounds with these gases. They rarely react because they are very stable. Its outer layers are completely filled with electrons. They are all in group 18 of the periodic table.
In the current periodic table, there are natural and artificial elements.
Naturals are the elements found in nature and artificials are produced in laboratories.
Two are located before uranium (U-92), the so-called elements cisuranic, which are the technetium (Tc-43) and the promethium (Pm-61). Other artificial elements come after uranium and are called transuranic, which are all others after U-92. Among them: Pu, Am, Bk, Fm, No, Sg, Ds.
Some elements and their findings:
Many elements have been known since ancient times, such as:
- Fe - iron
- Pb - lead
- Cu - copper
- S - sulfur
From the seventeenth century other elements were discovered. Their names were named after the scientist who produced this new element or its region of origin:
- Mg - Magnesium - Magnesia, region of Greece.
- Al - Aluminum - from Latin alum, aluminum salt.
- Br - bromo - from Greek bromine, bad smell.
- Rb - rubidium - from Latin rubidium, dark red color.
- He - helium - from the Greek helios (Sun), for being discovered from the spectrum of sunlight.
- Po - polonium - allusion to Poland, Marie Curie's homeland.
In the twentieth century, with the production of artificial elements, were used names of the planets of the Solar System:
- Np - Neptune
- Pu - plutonium
Tribute also to the continent:
- Am - americium
Tribute to a US state:
- Cf - californium
Tribute to scientists:
- Bh - booby
- Cm - curium
- Es - einstenium
- No - nobelium
- Md - beggar
- Rf - rutherfordium