Chemistry

Marie Curie


Marie Skodowska Curie was born in Poland, Warsaw, former Russian Empire, on November 7, 1867. She was a famous character in the history of science. The first woman to win two Nobel Prizes, standing out as a researcher in universities, at a time when this area was dominated by men.

His greatest contribution to science was the discovery of radioactivity and new chemical elements. With the financial help of his sister, he moved to Paris at a young age. Graduated in Mathematics and Physics at Sorbonne. She was the first woman to teach at this school.

In 1895, Marie married Pierre Curie, a professor of physics. In 1896 Henri Becquel encouraged Marie to study the radiation of uranium salts he had discovered.

With her husband, Marie began studying radiation-emitting materials in order to find new elements, as well as the pechblenda mineral. In 1898, they discovered that there was actually some component that released more energy than uranium. On December 26, Marie Curie announced the discovery to the Paris Academy of Sciences.

After many years of work, they were able to isolate two chemical elements. The first was called polonium, named after Marie Curie's origin, and the other element was called radio because of its radiation. The couple never patented the procurement process they developed. The words radioactive and radiation were coined by the couple to characterize the energy spontaneously released by this new chemical element.

In 1903 she received along with Pierre and Becquel the Nobel Prize in Physics for radiation studies. That same year, she became a doctor. In 1906, her husband Pierre dies in an accident and Marie takes her place as a professor of general physics at the Sorbonne. In 1911 he received another Nobel for the discovery of the polonium and radio elements. She was named Curie Lab Directive at the Radium Institute of the University of Paris, founded in 1914.

Visited Brazil to know the radioactive waters of Lindoia. In 1922 he became a free associate member of the Academy of Medicine. He founded the Institute of Radio. Marie Curie died in France in 1934 of leukemia. Possibly, she developed this disease due to the large radiation exposure during her career.